Konfiguracha apache

Z RNO-Wiki
Wersja Rno (dyskusja | edycje) z dnia 12:45, 29 sie 2007
(różn.) ← poprzednia wersja | przejdź do aktualnej wersji (różn.) | następna wersja → (różn.)

Spis treści

/etc/apache2/default-server.conf

# Configure the DocumentRoot
#
<Directory "/srv/www/htdocs">
        # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
        # or any combination of:
        #   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
        #
        # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
        # doesn't give it to you.
        #
        # The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
        # http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.2/mod/core.html#options
        # for more information.
        Options None
# ---\
# RNO 1 : pozwala/zabrania wyswietlac zawartosc katalogu;
#        Options +Indexes
#        Options -Indexes
# RNO   : nie odkomentowalem niczego, bo powinna byc jedna dyrektywa Options. Jest powyzej 'Options None' i to jest OK.
# ---/
        # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
        # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
        #   Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
#       AllowOverride None
# ---\
# RNO 2 : odkomentuj to, aby mozna bylo zmieniac Options +Indexes (Options -Indexes) w plikach .htaccess
#       AllowOverride Options=Indexes
#
# RNO 3 : odkomentuj to, aby mozna bylo zmieniac order,deny,allow w plikach .htaccess
#       AllowOverride Limit
# RNO   :
        AllowOverride Limit Options=Indexes
# ---/
        # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all
</Directory>

Options Indexes

Komentarz RNO 1 sprawia, że apache nie będzie wyświetlał zawartości (pod)katalogów w przypadku braku pliku index.html.

Komentarz RNO 2 sprawia, że użytkownik może to sobie zmienić umieszczając w pliku .htaccess wartość

 Options +Indexes

Oczywiście Options -Indexes wyłącza indeksowanie czyli wyświetlanie zawartości (pod)katalogów.

AllowOverride Limit

Komentarz RNO 3 sprawia, że użytkownik może zmieniać w pliku .htaccess również wartości Order, Deny i Allow, np. może wpisać takie dane:

 Order deny,allow
 Deny from all
 Allow 127.0.0.1

co sprawi, że ten folder będzie dostępny tylko lokalnie.


/etc/apache2/mod_userdir.conf

#
# UserDir: The name of the directory that is appended onto a user's home
# directory if a ~user request is received.
#

<IfModule mod_userdir.c>
        # Note that the name of the user directory ("public_html") cannot easily be
        # changed here, since it is a compile time setting. The apache package
        # would have to be rebuilt. You could work around by deleting
        # /usr/sbin/suexec, but then all scripts from the directories would be
        # executed with the UID of the webserver.
        #
        # To rebuild apache with another setting you need to change the
        # %userdir define in the spec file.

        # not every user's directory should be visible:
        UserDir disabled root

        # to enable UserDir only for a certain set of users, use this instead:
        #UserDir disabled
        #UserDir enabled user1 user2


        # the UserDir directive is actually used inside the virtual hosts, to
        # have more control
        #UserDir public_html

        <Directory /home/*/public_html>

#               AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Indexes
# ---\
# RNO:
                AllowOverride Options=Indexes FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
# ---/

#               Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
# ---\
# RNO:
                Options MultiViews SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
# ---/

                <Limit GET POST OPTIONS PROPFIND>
                        Order allow,deny
                        Allow from all
                </Limit>

                <LimitExcept GET POST OPTIONS PROPFIND>
                        Order deny,allow
                        Deny from all
                </LimitExcept>

        </Directory>

</IfModule>

HTTPS, SSL

Przedstawię w jaki sposób udało mi się zmusić server apache, aby działał protokół HTTPS.

Tworzenie certyfikatów i kluczy

Najpierw należy utworzyć sobie klucz i certyfikat. Najelepiej aby, podpisała go jakaś agrencja (CA). Ponieważ mój serwer jest tylko do użytku domowego, więc utworzyłem testowy certyfikat i klucz. Na dodatek nie ustawiłem hasła do klucza prywatnego, tak aby demon apache startował bez żadnego problemu.

Klucz i certyfikat utworzyłem za pomocą narzędzia openssl (certyifkat będzie ważny przez 10 lat):

 openssl req -new -x509 -days 3650 -nodes -out server.crt -keyout server.key

Utworzone pliki server.crt i server.key przekopiowałem odpowiednio do katalogów /etc/apache2/ssl.crt, /etc/apache2/ssl.key

 cp server.crt /etc/apache2/ssl.crt
 cp server.key /etc/apache2/ssl.key

Konfiguracja SSL w apache

Teraz należy skonfigurować serwer, aby słuchał połączeń nie tylko na porcie 80, lecz również na porcie 443 (domyślny port protokołu HTTPS). W tym celu skorzystałem z przykładowego pliku /etc/apache2/extra/httpd-ssl.conf. Zmieniłem w nim tylko ścieżki do pliku z certyfikatem i kluczem (komentarze RNO 1 i RNO 2):

#
# This is the Apache server configuration file providing SSL support.
# It contains the configuration directives to instruct the server how to
# serve pages over an https connection. For detailing information about these 
# directives see <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_ssl.html>
# 
# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
# what they do.  They're here only as hints or reminders.  If you are unsure
# consult the online docs. You have been warned.  
#

#
# Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG):
# Configure one or more sources to seed the PRNG of the SSL library.
# The seed data should be of good random quality.
# WARNING! On some platforms /dev/random blocks if not enough entropy
# is available. This means you then cannot use the /dev/random device
# because it would lead to very long connection times (as long as
# it requires to make more entropy available). But usually those
# platforms additionally provide a /dev/urandom device which doesn't
# block. So, if available, use this one instead. Read the mod_ssl User
# Manual for more details.
#
#SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random  512
#SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 512
#SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random  512
#SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 512


#
# When we also provide SSL we have to listen to the 
# standard HTTP port (see above) and to the HTTPS port
#
# Note: Configurations that use IPv6 but not IPv4-mapped addresses need two
#       Listen directives: "Listen [::]:443" and "Listen 0.0.0.0:443"
#
Listen 443

##
##  SSL Global Context
##
##  All SSL configuration in this context applies both to
##  the main server and all SSL-enabled virtual hosts.
##

#
#   Some MIME-types for downloading Certificates and CRLs
#
AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt
AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl    .crl

#   Pass Phrase Dialog:
#   Configure the pass phrase gathering process.
#   The filtering dialog program (`builtin' is a internal
#   terminal dialog) has to provide the pass phrase on stdout.
SSLPassPhraseDialog  builtin

#   Inter-Process Session Cache:
#   Configure the SSL Session Cache: First the mechanism 
#   to use and second the expiring timeout (in seconds).
#SSLSessionCache         dbm:/var/run/ssl_scache
SSLSessionCache        shmcb:/var/run/ssl_scache(512000)
SSLSessionCacheTimeout  300

#   Semaphore:
#   Configure the path to the mutual exclusion semaphore the
#   SSL engine uses internally for inter-process synchronization. 
SSLMutex  file:/var/run/ssl_mutex

##
## SSL Virtual Host Context
##

<VirtualHost _default_:443>

#   General setup for the virtual host
DocumentRoot "/srv/www/htdocs"
ServerName www.example.com:443
ServerAdmin you@example.com
ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error_log
TransferLog /var/log/apache2/access_log

#   SSL Engine Switch:
#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
SSLEngine on

#   SSL Cipher Suite:
#   List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.
#   See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.
SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP:+eNULL

#   Server Certificate:
#   Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate.  If
#   the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a
#   pass phrase.  Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again.  Keep
#   in mind that if you have both an RSA and a DSA certificate you
#   can configure both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA
#   ciphers, etc.)
# ---\
# RNO 1 : zmienilem sciezke do pliku
    #SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/server.crt
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server.crt
# ---/
#SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/server-dsa.crt

#   Server Private Key:
#   If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this
#   directive to point at the key file.  Keep in mind that if
#   you've both a RSA and a DSA private key you can configure
#   both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
# ---\
# RNO 2 : zmienilem sciezke do pliku
    #SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/server.key
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl.key/server.key
# ---/
#SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/server-dsa.key

#   Server Certificate Chain:
#   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
#   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
#   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
#   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
#   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
#   certificate for convinience.
#SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/server-ca.crt

#   Certificate Authority (CA):
#   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
#   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
#   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
#   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
#SSLCACertificatePath /etc/apache2/ssl.crt
#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

#   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
#   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
#   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
#   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
#   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
#SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl
#SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

#   Client Authentication (Type):
#   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
#   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
#   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
#   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
#SSLVerifyClient require
#SSLVerifyDepth  10

#   Access Control:
#   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
#   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
#   variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
#   mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
#   for more details.
#<Location />
#SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
#            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
#            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) \
#           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
#</Location>

#   SSL Engine Options:
#   Set various options for the SSL engine.
#   o FakeBasicAuth:
#     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
#     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
#     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
#     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
#     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
#   o ExportCertData:
#     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
#     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
#     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
#     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
#     into CGI scripts.
#   o StdEnvVars:
#     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
#     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
#     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
#     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
#     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
#   o StrictRequire:
#     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
#     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
#     and no other module can change it.
#   o OptRenegotiate:
#     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
#     directives are used in per-directory context. 
#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
<FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</FilesMatch>
<Directory "/srv/www/cgi-bin">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</Directory>

#   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
#   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
#   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
#   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
#   approach you can use one of the following variables:
#   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
#     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
#     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
#     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
#     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
#     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
#   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
#     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
#     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
#     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
#     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
#     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
#     works correctly. 
#   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
#   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
#   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
#   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
#   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
#   "force-response-1.0" for this.
BrowserMatch ".*MSIE.*" \
         nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
         downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

#   Per-Server Logging:
#   The home of a custom SSL log file. Use this when you want a
#   compact non-error SSL logfile on a virtual host basis.
CustomLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_request_log \
          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

</VirtualHost>                                  

Nie dodałem jednak bezczelnie w pliku /etc/apache2/httpd.conf wiersza

 Include extra/httpd-ssl.conf

lecz zrobiłem to tak, jak proponują w SUSE, czyli utworzyłem plik /etc/apache2/httpd.conf.local i dodałem na końcu pliku powyższą linijkę.

Następnie w ustawieniach /etc/sysconfig/apache2 dodałem plik /etc/apache2/httpd.conf.local do zmiennej APACHE_CONF_INCLUDE_FILES. Mianowicie mam teraz takie ustawienie w /etc/sysconfig/apache2:

## Path:        Network/WWW/Apache2
## Description: Configuration for Apache 2
## Type:        string
## Default:     ""
## ServiceRestart: apache2
#
# Here you can name files, separated by spaces, that should be Include'd from
# httpd.conf.
#
# This allows you to add e.g. VirtualHost statements without touching
# /etc/apache2/httpd.conf itself, which makes upgrading easier.
#
APACHE_CONF_INCLUDE_FILES="/etc/apache2/extra/httpd-ssl.conf"

Koniec

I to wszystko sprawia, że

 service apache2 restart

świetnie działa również na porcie 443.

Osobiste